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Previously named CherryForms, but name change was requested as this module isn't a builtin, or otherwise CherryPy core related.

This documentation is far from perfect. Browser through it at least once and take a look at the samples. If any good doc writer is availble: feel free to rearrange and rewrite :)

What is it?

FastFormward is a library for quickly developing simple forms.

Why for crying out loud?!

There are plenty other form generators around, and i inspected merely a few..
None were clean and obvious enough to grasp in 5 minutes, and all needed an adaption for CherryPy. That's not what i was looking for, so i wrote YetAnotherFormGeneratorAndValidator. According to this thread on the users-list i wasn't the only one seeking a nice sollution. :)

When to use it?

- well. I'm currently developing busines intranet applications. So they have to be developed fast, should be easily adaptable, and the layout is most of the times not that interesting. . Right now, i'm learning to do Agile development (no flames about this please) and one of the things i want to use this library for is avoiding the reccuring development of data entry forms.

What kinda applications?

You probabely don't want to use this when building a Forum or such..
Development was aimed at intranet business applications. Saving me time with the simple screen, to focus on the more important stuff. So mainly, it should be a time-saver ;)

So you think it's the best?

Nope.. i will not have that illusion. It's more like yet another sollution, and as long as it suits me fine, i'm working with- and on it.


Pro's and cons?


  • Very very alfa!!
  • At the moment, there aren't enough fields supported out-of-the-box
  • At the time of writing, the Field implementations are quite 'hackish'
  • The implementation so far, is more a proof of concept, than a use-for-production library.
  • You are looking at all the external documentation, the rest is inline
  • Right now, doesn't support opening multiple windows to the same url within the same session.


  • It's highly pythonic
  • Built for cherrypy
  • Seperates HTML and Python code as much as possible: Your logic is in Python, the HTML is constructed, and CSS is used for layout. (Near) perfect seperation :)
  • Allows for easy integration with templating filters (like the charming XyaptuFilter :) )
  • Highly adaptable
  • Allows a single Field to use multiple html form fields. See CompoundFields.
  • Develop forms fast


CompoundFields consist of a single Field derived class, that handles multiple html form fields. Think of the following data structures that would allow for easy development of compound fields. But please do remember: converting your form to a CompoundField is only a good thing to do, when you will use that input structure quite often. .

  • Dates (day, month, year)
  • Users (login name, real name, email)
  • Authorisations (<auth details>, note, choice)

Hers is a very simple example of a DateField using 3 inputs, and uses the datetime module to validate and convert the entered data:

class DateField(CompoundField):
    def __init__(self,name, label=None):
        "Enter a name, a list of fields, and an optional label." = IntField("day",'Day')
        self.month = IntField("month",'Month')
        self.year = IntField("year",'Year')
        super(DateField,self).__init__(name,[, self.month, self.year],label)

    def validate(self,kwp):
        "validates the date, using time module"
            return False
        return True

    def errorMsg(self,kwp):
        except Exception, e:
            return str(e)
        return ''
    def pyValue(self,kwp):
        vals = super(DateField,self).pyValue(kwp)
        import datetime

# and now to use it:
# in Root.__init__(self,...):
   self.d = forms.Form(name='birthday',
                       onExit = onExit,
                       fields = [forms.DateField('birthday','Please enter your birthday')],
                       submit = forms.SubmitField('next','Next: ',value='Go!'),
                       confirm = None)
# see below for more detailsa and other samples

Extendible, you say?

Yes, as the form code is built around a PetriNet, one can easily extend the system to introduce even more different behaviour. The code to do this was inspired by the lovely, and very simple workflow module from Ikaaro's itools. Well, and a note by Guido van Rossum (which i can't seem to find anywhere anymore) on doing workflow with a dictionary.

But most of all, the library of supported fields is extendible.
Based on a Field object, many other other field types can be generated. The most basic are the TextField and the IntField.

Okay, you got my attention. . explain


Let's start with some Form and Field documentation :

Help on class Form in module forms:

class Form(__builtin__.object)
 |  A form is a cherrypy page...
 |  it has the following states:
 |      X. ...nothingness...
 |      A. New Entry
 |      B. Users Enters Data
 |      C. Validate Entered Data
 |      D. Getting Confirmation From User
 |      E. ReEntry Filled With Entered Values
 |      F. ReEntry Filled With Entered Values and error message
 |      G. Entry Completed
 |  Transitions: (obvious activity between () )
 |      X --> A : born (form is setup, run only once!!)
 |      A --> B : (html is brewn) show form on screen
 |      B --> C : users posts results 
 |      C --> D : input is valid, but a user confirmation was set to be asked, 
 |                (brew confirmation html)
 |      C --> G : input is valid, but no user confirmation was set to be asked,
 |      C --> F : input is not valid
 |                (brew html with data and error msgs)
 |      F --> B : user posts new results 
 |      E --> B : user posts new results 
 |      G --> X : (fire another (external) method to build new screen)
 |  The form entry should all be done using 1 url, and preferable no hidden
 |  form inputs to differentiate the states.. Otherwise it would be to easy
 |  to hack those values.. So keeping the state purely serverside (and there-
 |  for also not using different urls for the different states) allows for
 |  less hackable data entry.
 |  The concept used to solve this, is to change the check the session for
 |  the state for this form, and switch to the right function accordingly.
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  A_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      yield entry HTML, kwp is bluntly passed onto the fields .build call.
 |  B_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      state B isn't a state where HTML is produced..
 |      it's entered just before the validation starts
 |      in state C
 |      Stores the KWP in the session!
 |  C_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      Let's move on
 |  D_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      same as A_onEnter, but now calls the .build's with 'readonly=True' and with a confirmation input.
 |  E_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      in coding, this is the same as A_onEnter, so it uses that.
 |  F_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      If there is an invalid value in kwp
 |      the html with warning should be displayed, this is done i each
 |      .build() issued..
 |  G_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      Let's move on
 |  X_onEnter(self, kwp)
 |      If we _enter_ this, it means we have reached valid and possibly confirmed input.
 |      Therefore, the onExit method is called (and it's result returned!), with the kwp from A_onEnter...
 |  __call__(self, **kwp)
 |      CP2 helper to map /foo/bar to /foo/bar/default
 |  __init__(self, name, onExit, fields, confirm, submit=None, invalidForm=None, encoding='application/x-www-form-urlencoded')
 |      name,    # form name
 |      onExit,  # onExit method, will be called with a dictionary
 |               # where key,value = key of the fields, pyValue of the
 |               # form fields.
 |      fields,  # list of fields (order, _is_ important)
 |      confirm, # user should confirm after good entry, field type
 |               # with the question
 |      submit = None, # optional submit input type (can be a combined)
 |               # will be left out in readonly data 
 |      invalidForm = None, # specify to overwrite self.invalidForm
 |      encoding = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' # form encoding,
 |               # to support files etc...
 |               # see
 |  confirmationOk(self, kwp)
 |      Does the self.confirm field validate, and is bool(self.confirm.pyValue(kwp) ) true?
 |      Cause if it is, the user has confirmed the entered data.
 |  default(self, **kwp)
 |      CP2 method to produce HTML. Will determine the next state and call the onEnter function for that state.
 |  index(self, **kwp)
 |      CP2 helper to map /foo/bar/ to /foo/bar/default
 |  invalidEntry(self, kwp)
 |  invalidForm(self, kwp)
 |      InValid Form? kwp is the dict with fields
 |      is called when all fields have valid input
 |      but there needs to be constraints checking
 |      to see if the logic between the fields is okay.
 |      return False if the fields are OKAY, or return
 |      an error msg to tell the user what's wrong.
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data and other attributes defined here:
 |  __dict__ = <dictproxy object at 0x0150D970>
 |      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
 |  __weakref__ = <attribute '__weakref__' of 'Form' objects>
 |      list of weak references to the object (if defined)

Help on class Field in module forms:

class Field(__builtin__.object)
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  __init__(self, type, name, label=None, html=None, id=None, tip=None, style=None, cssclass=None, helpmsg=None, validate=None, value=None, **extraAttrs)
 |      Base Field type. Use derivatives.. 
 |       type,          # type of input ('compound' for custom compound inputs)
 |       name,          # name of the input (or a list of names)
 |       label=None,    # the label to precede the input
 |       html=None,     # direct html entry
 |       id=None,       # the dom ID
 |       tip=None,      # tooltip, rendered probabely as title attribute
 |       style=None,    # any direct style input
 |       cssclass=None, # the CSS class 
 |       helpmsg=None,  # any default help msg if input fails.
 |       validate=None, # specific validation method (made an instancemethod using module new)
 |       value=None,    # value if already known, can be anything, to support compound fields
 |       **extraAttrs): # support for unknown tags
 |  build(self, form, readonly=False)
 |      Called to build the html for this field, for the specified form.
 |      Should return a string.
 |      If readonly: the html should be rendered as readonly on the client side
 |  errorMsg(self, form)
 |      Override this: so you can write specific error msgs based on the data in form.
 |  getHtml(self, form={})
 |      Property get method for html. the form parameter is the dictionary with form parameters
 |  pyValue(self, form)
 |      Override this: return the python variant of this input based on the form dictionary.
 |  validate(self, form)
 |      Returns either (True, value) or an (False,error message ) with the given form.
 |      This means, that the Field will have to do it's own checking if there is a value
 |      for it in the form.
 |      Design decision: why not pass the corresponding value?
 |          - well, that is an option. But when using multiple values using a compund
 |            field, this can best be left to the specific Field..
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Properties defined here:
 |  html
 |      Generated or static html for input..
 |      <get> = getHtml(self, form={})
 |          Property get method for html. the form parameter is the dictionary with form parameters
 |      <set> = _setHtml(self, html)
 |      <delete> = _delHtml(self)
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data and other attributes defined here:
 |  __dict__ = <dictproxy object at 0x0150D2F0>
 |      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
 |  __weakref__ = <attribute '__weakref__' of 'Field' objects>
 |      list of weak references to the object (if defined)

Now, i hope this is obvious enough, but a little test run can do no harm.
Let's pretend we run the following code... (as part of it is pure code, and another part is pure output...)

# let's say we have in integer field
# with a input name of 'int', a label 'Enter an integer:' and a helpmsg if the 
# input doesn't validate...
>>> i = forms.IntField('int','Enter an integer:',helpmsg='Use only digits...')

# Now, let's define a function we want called when the entry is over. 
# (this could be a redirect to another form, or do something else. 
# be creative! :) (With some reassinging in the root structure, it is 
# not hard to write  a flowable application. 1 url: complete application. 
# porting to the commandline would be easy. - right Carlos?! )
>>> def onExit(kwp):

>>>     print '--- got the keyword parameters. redirecting to other page.. '
>>>     print 'kwp:',`kwp`
>>>     print 'done'
# we have ourselves an onExit function, and an input field. 
# Let's create a form:
#  * name : form name (used for storing the entry state in the session)
#  * onExit : is obviously the callback when entry is valid and complete
#  * fields : a list of fields (put in html in that order - use CSS for
#             extra layout requirements.
#  * confirm : None: there is no confirmation function - we'll get back at 
#              this later.
>>> f = forms.Form(name='formpje', onExit = onExit, fields = [i], confirm = None)

# Let's pretend we're a browser request:
>>> print "".join(f.default())
# we would get something like this:
# [with extra linefeeds for readability - the result is linefeedless]
# >> transition X -> A

<form method="post" action="." enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded">
<label for="" >Enter an integer:</label>
<input type="text" name="int" id=""    value="">

# next, we pretend to enter invalid data:
>>> print "".join(f.default(int='WRONG'))
# >> transition A -> B
# >> transition B -> C
# >> transition C -> F
<form method="post" action="." enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded">
<label for="" >Enter an integer:</label>
<input type="text" name="int" id=""     erroreous value="Use only digits...:WRONG">

# next we enter valid data:
>>> f.default(int='123')
# >> transition F -> B
# >> transition B -> C
# >> transition C -> G
# >> transition G -> X
got the keyword parameters. redirecting to other page.. 
kwp: {'int': 123}
# that is to be expected, as we didn't provide a confirm field 
# which requests a validation of the entered data
# the data should be offered readonly..
# so the onExit routine is called, with the kwp being set to the **kwp
# default retrieves - and we can assume it's valid data...

More samples

Here is a bit more of a smample. I've left out the output for clarity, get the module and use it if you'd like to see what this produces..

both root.f, root.g and root.h are forms.
Also note, that this is the entire Root class, and no external HTML or so is used...

class Root:
    def __init__(self):
        def onExit(kwp):
            yield 'terminated with kwp: ',`kwp`
        import forms
        # first form: simply enter an integer
        # [mind you, this will also work without a submit button, 
        # so the submit button will leave from the output]
        self.f = forms.Form(name='formpje',
                            onExit = onExit,
                            fields = [forms.IntField('intje','geef intje:')],
                            confirm = None)
        # same as self.f
        # but now with a cssclass for the input, and a confirmation request
        # after valid data has been read. 
        self.g = forms.Form(name='formpje_with confirmation', 
                            onExit = onExit,
                            fields = [forms.IntField('intje','geef intje:',cssclass="veldje")],
                            confirm = forms.SubmitField('confirmed','Confirmed?', value='Confirmed'))

        # this will produce 3 integer fields. 
        # so:
        #  * the entry of each field must be valid
        # there is a veldConfirm to request confirmation
        #  * the form uses confirmation after valid data
        # checkMultiply is used
        #  * we add logic to test if the input values for this
        #    form are correct. So we can test a bit more, if the input
        #    relates to certain 'form'-logic constraints.. this is 
        #    typically where you would want to validate the entry 
        #    with databases etc. 
        veldA = forms.IntField('A','A:')
        veldB = forms.IntField('B','B:')
        veldMul = forms.IntField('mult','multiplied')
        veldConfirm = forms.SubmitField('confirmed','Confirmed?', value='Confirmed')
        submit = forms.SubmitField(value='Submit')

        # this will check if the fields A * B == C
        # if not, form validation will fail (though every field validation might 
        # have returned succesfully) and the error msg returned will be displayed
        # on screen. (not in any div or so, you should do that yourself..)
        def checkmultiply(kwp):
            if veldA.pyValue(kwp) * veldB.pyValue(kwp) != veldMul.pyValue(kwp):
                return "A * B should be equal to C"

        ## here comes the form, available under /h/
        self.h = forms.Form(name='formpje_with confirmation', 
                            onExit = onExit,
                            fields = [veldA,veldB,veldMul],
                            invalidForm = checkmultiply,
                            submit = submit,
                            confirm = veldConfirm)
        # now, ain't that easy?

Haven't had enough?

Reach me at the CherryPyIrcChannel?, or use one of the CherryPyMailingLists?.

To do

  • Remove extra states that aren't useful. (any state that isn't a join, or doesn't produce output is redundant)
  • more dox :)
  • more field types


See the latest attachment...


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